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Intro
0. Left & Right Brain
1. Masking Alpha Channel
2. Rods & Cones
3. LGN: Magno & Parvo
4. SC: Superior Colliculus
5. Primary Visual Cortex
6. Dorsal - Ventral Stream
7. Eye Movements
8. Oculomotor System
9. Balance System
10. Ectopia & Microgyrus
11. Genetic Etiology
12. Reading
13. Animals
14. Conclusion / Solution
15. Different Theories
16. Peace of Mind
DYSLEXIA ADVICE
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0.4 Shifting Dominance and Dyslexia
  

There are 3 types of dominance: Directional, Sensory and Oculomotor (0.3 Ocular Dominance), and there is no reason to assume that, for any individual, the same side will be dominant for all 3 categories.

 

Tests for both sensory and directional dominance, found that the dominance type was not always the same in many of the subjects tested. It is possible that a personís dominance can change depending on the fixation distance (far vs. near, etc.), or for different visual tasks.

 

The degree of dominance can also vary from person to person.  Some people may be strongly dominant in one eye; some people have a nearly equal preference for either eye, and some people may freely alternate dominance between the two eyes.

 

(Source: Vision Science III by Dr Salmon - Nancy Buset & Sonja Toelkes - NSUCO Class of 2001, source-pdf: Vision Science III - Binocular Vision - Ocular Dominance - Steinman - Chapter 2 & 3 )

 

Note: I believe that persons with non-specific dominance, focus more on things at their left- and right side, because it's harder to focusing strait in front or visa versa. By reducing their peripheral view with glasses or such, the will have to change to "a view" with one dominant side to avoid parallax. But this is unnatural for them (at first or always?) and it will change the motor system of their eyes, and the way the persons brain works (thinks) from the peripheral visual system, more to the central visual system. One has to be careful when physically changing one's view.

 In nature our visual system is based upon a 3-dimensional space but when it comes to reading our view is focused on a flat, non-depth environment. A reader has to focus on small detailed letters and words in front, reducing his/her peripheral-view and shut him/herself off their environment full of sounds, colors, shapes, movement, etc. and reproduce the sounds of the words in his/her head.

 

It is difficult for dyslexics with a differentiating LGN, that causes a weaker 'visual grid ', to get grip on text elements. They have to 'over-focus' with one eye to get a hold on the detailed letters, words, text-lines (right eye), or on the global text (left eye), see topics: 0.1 Left and right brain: function & interaction and 3.2 Dyslexia and LGN

 


 

It also can cause them to shift their natural dominance from left to right; the 'over-focusing' stops the natural 'flow' from one (text) element to the next. The ocular dominance system can get out of balance, shifting focusing from detail to global (0.1 Left and right brain: function & interaction and 0.3.1 Ocular Dominance ) creating visual disturbances and a blurry sight.

The Hermann-grid illusion, gives a good reflection of this shifting, balance seeking activity. When we look at the image above, our focus shifts from the whole image that is black and look for a point/detail at a crossing point of lines, this activity goes back and forth, also trying to get 'visualization', understanding of the grid itself, who is white in contrast to the black square. This non grip having situation starts to pop-up the blurry points and confusion in our brain.

To overcome this unbalanced brain activity, that causes visual stress, there are exercises to find 'peace of mind' (16. Peace of Mind). By letting go to 'sharply' focus on the text and rather just flow (gaze) over it, they can stop these grip/balance seeking movements and improve their reading ability, some of these exercises are:

  • Visualization of an imaginary focus-point, where the reader doesn't focus on the text, having a more gazing approach towards the text self. (15.6 The Gift of Dyslexia - Ronald Davis )
  • Body movement exercises like juggling balls creating a stronger balance on one side al-thus finding an inner-peace, when juggling one learns to focus on the global-ball-movement, and shutting him/herself of from their environment, no longer trying to follow the different ball's. (Juggling article )
  • The use of colors, text is written in colors because they are not based upon alignment (see rods & cones) training de dyslectic to the reading rhythm, flowing over the text instead of trying to sharply focus.

 

An other way to create a sharper focus is to reduce the peripheral view, so V1 has less input (5.3 Alpha in Primary Visual Cortex (V1) ), and it's grid based processing system gets more grip on what we see (5.2 Visual Grid and the Origin of Ocular Dominance Patterns in V1 ).
 
 
 

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